Barefoot isles

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Противоядие от плоского урбанизма.
Босоногие островки одни из немногих предметов интерьера, направленных на возрождение естественной культуры ходьбы в постиндустриальном обществе. Они являются логическим продолжением идей всемирно известных архитекторов, дизайнеров и художников прошлого Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Shusaku Arakawa и Madeline Gins. Вместе с тем, Босоногие островки являются более универсальным, мобильным и практичным образцом активного дизайна и лучшим решением проходной поверхности пола или других зон, где люди пребывают на ногах. Благодаря эффекту балансирования тела они могут активировать мышцы практически по всему телу, не отвлекая человека на специальные укражнения. Мимоходом. Таким образом, соблюдается один из важнейших принципов активного дизайна. Также обеспечивается биофильный сенсорно-тактильный контраст. Подробнее о силе и простоте замысла читайте здесь.
Босоногие островки могут стать фишкой любого современного дома или офиса, потому, что:
Обычно, но неестественно?
Необычно и неестественно?
Необычно, но ЕСТЕСТВЕННО!
Примеры работ:

Противоядие от плоского урбанизма.
Босоногие островки одни из немногих предметов интерьера, направленных на возрождение естественной культуры ходьбы в постиндустриальном обществе. Они являются логическим продолжением идей всемирно известных архитекторов, дизайнеров и художников прошлого Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Shusaku Arakawa и Madeline Gins. Вместе с тем, Босоногие островки являются более универсальным, мобильным и практичным образцом активного дизайна и лучшим решением проходной поверхности пола или других зон, где люди пребывают на ногах. Благодаря эффекту балансирования тела они могут активировать мышцы практически по всему телу, не отвлекая человека на специальные укражнения. Мимоходом. Таким образом, соблюдается один из важнейших принципов активного дизайна. Подробнее о силе и простоте замысла, его биофильных и антропологических аспектах читайте здесь.
Босоногие островки могут стать фишкой любого современного дома или офиса, потому, что:
Обычно, но неестественно?
Необычно и неестественно?
Необычно, но ЕСТЕСТВЕННО!
Примеры работ:

Противоядие от плоского урбанизма.
О том, что делать с проблемой плоской поверхности задумывались всемирно известные архитекторы, дизайнеры и художники Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Shusaku Arakawa и Madeline Gins. Логическим продолжением их идей стали босоногие островки одни из немногих предметов современного интерьера, направленных на возрождение естественной культуры ходьбы в постиндустриальном обществе. Если сравнивать с воплощениями Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Shusaku Arakawa и Madeline Gins , островки, возможно, являются более практичным образцом активного дизайна проходной поверхности пола или других зон, где люди пребывают на ногах. Благодаря эффекту балансирования тела они могут активировать мышцы практически по всему телу, не отвлекая человека на специальные укражнения. Мимоходом. Таким образом, соблюдается один из важнейших принципов активного дизайна.

Например, тенденция проектирования мебели, которая может улучшить здоровье, будь то дома или в офисе отобразилась на Milan design week 2019
Неровные полы пересекаются с трендом на тактильность https://www.dezeen.com/2019/01/11/interior-design-trend-report-2019-michelle-ogundehin-soft-scandi/#disqus_thread
ISPUB.COM The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery Volume 6 Number 1

Flat feet in Children: When should they be treated? R Rose.

Citation
R Rose. Flat feet in Children: When should they be treated?. The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery. 2006 Volume 6
Number 1.
1. Abstract Objective: Review paper on when flatfeet in children should be treated. Methods: A thorough review of the literature on flat foot was undertaken. In addition, illustrations are used to indicate the differences between flexible flat foot, congenital vertical talus and tarsal coalition Results: This review has sought to clarify the differences between physiological and pathological flat foot. The indications for treatment are clearly stated. Conclusion: Flat foot is a common condition in paediatric orthopaedic practice. Most children will have flexible, painless flat foot that requires no treatment. It is imperative that rigid flat foot be evaluated to ascertain the presence of congenital vertical talus, tarsal coalition or skew-foot, all of which usually require surgical treatment. The author recommends some practical points as guidelines for good practice.
 
INTRODUCTION
Flat foot or pes planus is one of the most common conditions seen in paediatric orthopaedic practice. Most children who present for evaluation of flat feet will have flexible flat feet that do not require treatment. However, it is imperative that other conditions that do require treatment, such as congenital vertical talus, tarsal coalition, skew-foot and neuromuscular foot be ruled-out. The first principle, therefore, in evaluating childhood flat feet is to separate those which are physiological from those which are pathological. Physiological flat feet, including calcaneovalgus deformity and flexible flat foot, is a normal variation, causes no disability and tends to improve with time. Pathological flat foot which includes congenital vertical talus, tarsal coalition, skew-foot, neuromuscular and hypermobile flat foot with a tight heel cord shows some degree of stiffness, often causes disability and usually requires treatment. Adults may develop painful flat feet after loss of posterior tibialis function.
EVALUATION
The examination should begin by observing general limb alignment, foot progression angle, and the degree of bow leg or knock knee exhibited while the child is walking with the parent. On standing, the foot appears flat and the heel may show mild valgus [Fig.1].
FLEXIBLE FLAT FOOT
The flexible or physiological flat foot is present in nearly all infants, many children and approximately 15% of adults. The flatness of infant feet is often due to the thick subcutaneous plantar fat pad and joint laxity. The arch is not present at birth, but slowly becomes established at about five years of age. Flat feet are often hereditary; and are also
common in individuals who wore shoes as children, are obese and possess joint laxity. Rao and Joseph demonstrated a higher prevalence of flat feet among children who wore shoes compared with those who were unshod [1]. The authors observed that closed-toe shoes inhibited the development of the arch of the foot more than slippers or sandals. Flexible flat foot represents the largest group; these children are often brought by their parents, and sometimes grandparents, who are concerned with the appearance of the feet, and with the perception that flat feet can be associated with pain in adulthood but may be corrected.

EVALUATION
The examination should begin by observing general limb
alignment, foot progression angle, and the degree of bow leg
or knock knee exhibited while the child is walking with the
parent. On standing, the foot appears flat and the heel may
show mild valgus [Fig.1].

 
 
Figure 1
Figure 1: Bilateral flatfeet (pes planus) with mild heel valgus.
When the child is asked to stand on tip-toe, the arch usually
reconstitutes, and the heel goes into mild varus [Fig. 2].
Figure 2
Figure 2: The arches are reconstructed and the heels go into mild varus when the child is on tip-toes.


The ability to stand on the heel demonstrates that the heel
cord is not excessively tight. Heel cord tightness should also
be evaluated by first ‘locking' the talonavicular joint in
inversion and then passively dorsiflexing the foot. Subtalar
and ankle motions are full in flexible flat feet. Evaluation of
subtalar motion does not consist of simple medial-to-lateral
rocking of the calcaneus; this is a common but misleading
method of assessing subtalar motion, and only produces
tilting in the lax ankle mortice. Instead, the forefoot should
be rotated through a range of pronation and supination.
Evaluation of the flexible flat foot should also include
assessment for ligamentous laxity around the knees, elbows
and wrist joints.
The shoes should also be examined. Ordinarily, there is heel
wear on the lateral side. Shoes without heel wear may
indicate a tight Achilles tendon. Radiographs are rarely
indicated for flexible asymptomatic flat feet.
TREATMENT
The flexible painless flat foot requires no treatment.
Treatment should not be imposed on a child to satisfy the
parents. The parents and grandparents should be reassured
that the flexible, painless flat foot is a common, benign
condition and a variation of normal. They should be
informed that shoe modifications or inserts are expensive
and may adversely affect the child's self image. In addition,
such measures do not influence the course of flexible flat
foot. In cases of severe, but flexible, flat foot the medial sole
and counter of the shoe can be worn-away and destroyed
within a week or two of purchasing new shoes. In such
children, one might consider either corrective shoes or shoes
with an orthotic insert. If the family insists that something
must be done, encourage the use of flexible shoes, limitation
of excess weight and a healthy lifestyle for the child.
However, because of a cultural tendency to favour corrective
shoe wear, the psychological need for parents to provide ‘the
best' for their child, and the placebo effect observed when
special shoes are prescribed, this rather expensive but
probably harmless practice will continue.
It is a commonly held belief that the prophylactic use of
rigid orthotics for young athletes with flat feet decreases the
risks of injury in this population. Studies have been
performed examining the relationship between flat feet and
athletic injuries in the lower extremities and the data
revealed that the existence of flat-footedness did not
predispose the athlete to lower extremity injuries [ 2].

Therefore, there is no scientific evidence to support the
prophylactic use of orthotics for flat-footed athletes, to
prevent future injury.
Flexible flat foot is considered pathological when pain is
present in the arch and persists despite proper conservative
method. In addition, callosities and abnormal shoe wear are
sometimes indications for surgery. Rarely, should surgery be
performed before skeletal maturity. A variety of tendon
transfers and reconstructive procedures have been
advocated, but none have proven uniformly successful.
Operative intervention to create an arch by blocking subtalar
movement may establish an arch but may damage the
subtalar joint and cause degenerative arthritis in adult life.
Fusion of the subtalar joint alone or a more extensive